Private and government organizations are developing programs to enhance the school readiness of all young children, especially children from economically disadvantaged homes and communities and children with special needs. These programs are designed to enhance social, language, and academic skills through responsive early care and education.
Culture and Development in Children's Play [From: Making sense of developmentally and culturally appropriate practice DCAP in early childhood education. All rights reserved] Children's play has been recognized as the major agent in young children's development and learning. Play also serves as an enculturative mechanism Schwartzman, Through play children learn societal roles, norms, and values.
As a fundamental concept for developmentally and culturally appropriate practice, we need to understand the dynamics of cultural influence and child development on children's play, particularly in the contexts of family ethnic culture. In this chapter I discuss the inseparable and culturally grounded relation between children's development and their play.
Culture Shapes Sense Making of the Phenomena The eyes of looking at and interpreting children's play is different from culture to culture. Individuals with a strong influence from Euro-American cultural heritages look at, interpret, explore social phenomena on an individual basis. Especially when a person is raised by a Euro-American nuclear family, individualism is more apparent than when a person is raised by an extended or multigenerational family.
The Euro-American ethnic perspective usually perceives that a family is composed of a few individuals. This individually oriented cultural mind-set shapes the researchers', practitioners', and parents' approach, understanding, and description of child's play phenomena within that paradigm.
It also leads them to see interaction with the child based on that culturally shaped mode. For example, they are looking at whether the child can be in control of the play object, whether the individual child realizes that there are other individual swhether he or she is able to interact with them, how much same-age peer interaction occurs; or whether the individual child is able to negotiate with other individual s in a group play Howes, ; Parten, Psychologist Mildred Parten recorded the changing nature--"development"--of young children's play from age two to age five.
Parten's categories of children's social play have been frequently used since then. We still view her categories of child's play as a meaningful framework within which to examine the increasing social maturity of the child Hughes, Her theory was based on the following developmental stages: It is the lowest level of social play.
The child plays alone and independently even if surrounded by other children. It is mentioned as typical of two-year-olds play; 2 Parallel play. The child plays independently at the same activity, at the same time, and in the same place.
The child is aware of the presence of peers but each child plays separately; 3 Associate play. It is described as a common among three- and especially four-year-olds' play.
The child is still focused on a separate activity but there is a considerable amount of sharing, lending, taking turns, and attending to the activities of one's peers; and 4 Cooperative play.
It is described as a high level of play that represents the child's social and cognitive maturity. Influenced by Parten's theory, Howes and Howes, Unger, and Seidner present a similar developmental theory of child's social play: Children engage in similar activities but do not pay any attention to one another; 2 Mutual regard.Play nurtures development and fulfils a baby’s inborn need to learn.
Play takes many forms, from shaking a rattle to peek-a-boo to hide-and-seek. Play can be done by a child alone, with another child, in a group or with an adult. WHY PLAY IS IMPORTANT 5 Play and the Brain Play and Child Development The Role of Toys 2. VARIETIES OF PLAY 9 believes that children benefit from free play.
Research confirms that children’s self-initiated play nurtures overall development, have a crucial role in children’s development. Play is the lens through which children. Librarians and educators have stressed the importance of brain research showing the importance of the first five years of a child’s life in synapses formation and brain development.
The assessment of young children’s development and learning has recently taken on new importance. Private and government organizations are developing programs to enhance the school readiness of all young children, especially children from economically disadvantaged homes and communities and children with special needs.
Why play is important Play is an essential part of every child’s life and is vital for the enjoyment of childhood as well as social, emotional, intellectual and physical development. When children are asked about what they think is important in their lives, playing and friends is usually at the top of the list.
THE POWER OF PLAY A Research Summary on Play and Learning argument for the importance of play in children’s lives, the actual time children spend playing continues to decrease.
Today, children play eight hours less each week than their All domains of children’s development –.