You might think that open-minded people who review the evidence should be able to agree on whether homework really does help. Their assessments ranged from homework having positive effects, no effects, or complex effects to the suggestion that the research was too sparse or poorly conducted to allow trustworthy conclusions.
The Context for a Literacy Coaching Continuum With the ever-increasing focus on reading achievement in schools today, many districts are hiring literacy coaches to provide embedded professional learning opportunities for their teachers.
Coaching holds great promise as a tool to increase teachers' content knowledge. It's an essential ingredient in educators' efforts to increase student achievement, and it has the potential to nurture a culture of academic focus by valuing current professional knowledge and extending and enhancing effective pedagogical practice.
The use of literacy coaches is not without controversy, however, and there are a number of reasons for this, including uncertainty about the purpose of literacy coaching, multiple interpretations of the title and role of a literacy coach, and the varying qualifications of the individuals hired to provide the coaching support.
Some educators perceive coaching as punitive—a remedial service for those who aren't teaching up to standard.
Others view the coaching experience as evaluation under the guise of support or as directives in reflective disguise the wolf in grandma's clothing. Still others consider coaching an unnecessary distraction from the daily business of teaching and suggest that coaches reserve their time for "teachers who really need it.
What is a literacy coach, and what exactly does one do? Without a defined role, coaches may hear comments along these lines: Why don't you spend time with the people who really need your help?
In a recent review of the literature, I came across the following monikers: This document defines a reading or literacy coach as a reading specialist who focuses on providing professional development for teachers by providing them with the additional support needed to implement various instructional programs and practices.
They provide essential leadership for the school's entire literacy program by helping create and supervise a long-term staff development process that supports both the development and implementation of the literacy program over months and years.
These individuals need to have experiences that enable them to provide effective professional development for the teachers in their schools. Category III, bullet 2 I like this definition. It acknowledges the necessary qualifications of the literacy coach, addresses the ongoing nature of the position, and recognizes that an effective coach must be proactive and have experience working with adult learners.
I won't presume to endorse a particular term for what coaches should be called, but I believe strongly that the purpose of a literacy coaching program and the roles of the coaches within that program must be thoughtfully considered and articulated before implementation.
When a school considers adding the position of literacy coach to the roster, the first questions that should be discussed are "Why hire a literacy coach? When considering and constructing your own response to these key questions, you may find it helpful to review other coaching program policies.
In launching the model, the district's purpose was to reduce professional isolation and ensure the integration of research-based practice in classrooms. The CCL framework features a six-week cycle of inquiry focused on instructional strategies.
Inquiry teams are composed of a content coach, teachers, and the principal. Additional support includes a weekly lab practicum during which the coach, teachers, and principal take turns teaching and afterward discuss their observations pre-conference, demonstrations, debrief.
Content coaches also visit individual classrooms to support the implementation of the instructional strategies. The four main components of the CCL model—classroom experience, reflection and inquiry, feedback, and theory—exemplify what Linda Darling-Hammond and Milbrey W.
McLaughlin highlight as an essential feature of effective professional development: It features a schoolwide design for ensuring that all children achieve literacy proficiency by the end of 3rd grade.
A planned extension of the ACLM to middle and high schools is in the pilot stage. Within the ACLM model, literacy coaching is 1 of 10 components identified as essential to the process, along with a curriculum for literacy, model classrooms, high standards, accountability, early intervention, professional development, a well-designed literacy plan, technology that includes networking opportunities, and the spotlighting of schools that are achieving high results.
Coaches make sure that components of a K—3 reading program—including phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and the writing process—are implemented with fidelity. Successful literacy programs such as Boston's Collaborative Coaching and Learning model and Arkansas's Comprehensive Literacy Model underscore the importance of having an identified purpose and clearly defined roles and responsibilities.
After all, if the literacy coach or administrator is confused about the roles and responsibilities of the position, why should we be surprised when teachers fail to embrace the model with enthusiasm?
If our coaching model is designated as an intervention for some rather than an opportunity for all, why should we be surprised when teachers see the program as corrective in nature?
The authors analyzed Reading First data from five western states to determine how coaches allocated time, performed tasks, and described their responsibilities. As a result of their research, the authors classify coaches into five distinct groupings: Reviewing and reflecting on the distinctions between these definitions will be a helpful step in determining what you most value in terms of the role of literacy coaches in your model of professional learning.
Three Essential Principles of Coaching The primary goal of literacy coaching is to improve student learning. Meeting this goal requires an understanding of, and attention to, research on effective district, school, and teacher practices, including a guaranteed and viable curriculum and challenging goals and effective feedback Marzano, Within the overarching goal of improved student achievement are three essential principles of coaching: Coaching should help establish a school culture that recognizes collaboration as an asset.Differentiated Literacy Coaching.
by Mary Catherine Moran. Table of Contents. Chapter 1. The Context for a Literacy Coaching Continuum. With the ever-increasing focus on reading achievement in schools today, many districts are hiring literacy coaches to provide embedded professional learning opportunities for their teachers. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY INTERACTIVE Readings in Educational Psychology.
Developed by: W. Huitt Last updated: November The founder members of the Pacific alliance were the spy agencies from the Five Eyes, as well as South Korea, Singapore, and Thailand. .
Does Homework Improve Learning? By Alfie Kohn. Because the question that serves as the title of this chapter doesn’t seem all that complicated, you might think that after all this time we’d have a straightforward answer.
Differentiated Literacy Coaching. by Mary Catherine Moran. Table of Contents. Chapter 1. The Context for a Literacy Coaching Continuum. With the ever-increasing focus on reading achievement in schools today, many districts are hiring literacy coaches to provide embedded professional learning opportunities for their teachers.
Oct 17, · The Israel Victory Project steers U.S. policy toward backing an Israel victory over the Palestinians to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict. Decades of what insiders call “peace processing” have left matters worse than when they started.