Biography[ edit ] Britton was born in Scarborough, Englandon 18 May He graduated with a B. A Cretan Memoir details an episode in his war experiences when he escaped being captured by German paratroopers who invaded the island of Crete where he helped to staff a radar station in
The social studies curriculum offers one rich context for students to write frequently and for different purposes. Writing is functiona ;it enables students to organize or express what they have learned.
Because a major goal of social studies instruction is to help children examine information in the way social scientists do, writing about what they learn should be a very important part of the curriculum. A second form of writing commonly observed in elementary social studies classrooms is expressive writing.
They need to learn ways to make ideas grow from a background of topics they have been studying. It is relaxed and intimate. It reveals the writer and verbalizes his or her consciousness Expressive writing is frequently characterized as thinking aloud on paper.
The discoveries unearthed while engaged in social studies themes and topics can provide a rich content background for creative writing. Proett and Gill emphasize that the creative process is comprised of two major considerations: Seen in one way, [the writing process] is the flowing of words onto the page, easily, naturally, rapidly.
But it is also a time of making decisions, of choosing what to tell and what to leave out In some ways, these functions even seem contradictory; the first needs to be fluid and fast while the other calls for deliberation and reason.
The teaching task is to help the writer coordinate these two functions. The remainder of this article describes the use of cinquain in a fourth-grade thematic unit on the Southwestern United States. Cinquains on the Life of a Vaquera In this unit on the Southwest, the first stage of the writing process was exploring the topic.
To help students begin, the teacher carefully prepared a variety of fact-finding experiences. The emphasis of the unit was on the land and its people, and one section dealt with early Spanish settlers and life on their ranchos large cattle ranches.
The focus of learning was on vaqueras female cattle workers 11 and vaqueros male cattle workersexpert riders who spent most of their day on horseback rounding up cattle.
In fact, there are many cinquain patterns; the one used for this activity appears in Figure 1 and consists of: One group focused on words that describe vaqueras; another group generated action doing words related to vaqueras; and a third group listed things associated with these cattle workers.
After ten minutes or so of enthusiastic deliberation, each group chose a representative to place its word inventory on a large sheet of chart paper. The contents of the charts were as follows: Another lively discussion ensued as children argued strongly for their personal choices of words for the poem.
The results of the group effort are shown in Figure 2. The class decided to add commas separating items, and to capitalize the first word in each line.
After making these revisions, students again chorused their creation. After reading their cinquains to the class, students came forward to staple them to the sides of the cattle.
The instructional sequence for creative writing in the social studies is summarized in Figure 3. Summary Most elementary classrooms use expository and expressive writing as the two major forms of writing in the social studies.
There is plenty or room to integrate creative writing strategies as well. By encouraging children to experiment with the written word in the context of themes in the social studies, we help them realize that language can be used to communicate knowledge clearly and to express ideas imaginatively.Books by James Britton, The Oxford books of stories for juniors, LANGUAGE AND LEARNING, The Oxford book of stories for juniors, Language and Learning, The Blue Print Of God, Development of Writing Abilities, Prospect and Retrospect.
James Nimmo Britton (18 May – 29 February ) was an influential British educator at the UCL Institute of Education whose theory of language and learning helped guide research in school writing, while shaping the progressive teaching of language, writing, and literature in both England and the United States after the Dartmouth Conference () of Anglo-American English educators.
The Development of Writing Abilities (), London: Macmillan Education, Fulwiler, Toby and Art Young, eds. Programs That Work: Models and Methods for Writing across the Curriculum.
The book has five sections: Reading the Writing Process Movement, Teaching the Writing Process, Institutionalizing the Writing Process, Deconstructing the Writing Process, and Narrating the Writing . This Research Digest is the first in a series of periodic digests to be by James Britton and col-leagues, The development of writing abilities (), three function categories in remains a landmark study that recognised connections be-tween the process of writing.
JAMES BRITTON AND THE PEDAGOGY OF ADV ANCED COMPOSITION Karen Peiz In his work for the British Schools Council Project, pub lished under the title The Development of Writing Abilities (J 1- 18),1 James Britton classified types of school writing along a spectrum from transactional to poetic.