Public Relations is defined as: The management function which evaluates public attitudes, identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or organisation with the public interest and plans and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance. Given such a definition, the function of an organisation and the public relations manager is to be externally oriented in order to make the company sensitive to the concerns of the external environment and to convince the external environment the public of the worthiness of company positions.
Entertainment, Sports, Marketing In the s, Amos Kendall, a Kentucky newspaper editor, became essentially the first presidential press secretary. He worked in support of Andrew Jackson during Jackson's election campaign and his term as president. Kendall conducted polls; wrote speeches, news releases, pamphlets; distributed reprints of other favorable articles reprints; and advised Jackson on image and strategy.
The opening of American West provided many opportunities for persuasive messages to influence people living along the Atlantic coast to migrate west. Many of these messages were exaggerated, such as the legend of Daniel Boone, so important to the settlement of Kentucky, and later the stories of Buffalo Bill Cody, Wyatt Earp and Calamity Jane that induced settlers to the territories west of the Mississippi.
Social reform in the second half of the 19th century also relied heavily on classic public relations techniques. The movement to abolish slavery included strategies such as personalizing the issue, as Harriet Beecher Stowe left did so well with her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. The abolitionist movement also used the strategy of social activism, such as Harriet Tubman left who lead midnight escapes of slaves and then spoke about it in the North.
The movement also involved other strategies: It employed tactics such as publications, public speaking, rallies and so on. The temperance movement to abolish liquor and the suffrage movement to gain women the right to vote were other successful social reform movements that employed similar public relations strategies and tactics.
The Bryan-McKinley presidential campaign of was the first to mount an all-out effort of public opinion. It used posters, pamphlets and news releases; it used public meetings and speeches at whistle-stop train visits throughout the country.
Readability, Comprehension Current Use: Government, Nonprofit organizations, Business organizations The public information era of public relations saw the founding of many agencies and departments whose purpose was to provide the public with accurate, timely, honest, and favorable information about an organization or client.
A pivotal figure in this era was Ivy Ledbetter Lee, known as the first public relations practitioner. Among his contributions to the field was his "Declaration of Principles," which called for honest communication with the public on behalf of a client.
Contingency Theory of Strategic Conflict Management Much of the literature on effective public relations had been built on Grunig and Grunig’s () and Grunig and Hunt’s () excellence theory. Four models of excellence have been Mitrook () argued there were several reasons why the four models of public relations were. Grounded in Kent and Taylor’s () dialogic principles and Grunig and Hunt’s () four models of public relations, this dissertation is based on a content analysis that examined higher education use of Twitter as a means of communication. Apr 19, · Best Answer: i would probably characterise it as Press agentry/publicity. because it is only one-way communication. public information is the other one way communication but that requires the dissemination of factual information..a more journalistic approach which your example clearly is Status: Resolved.
During this period, the following "firsts" were observed: First public relations agency Boston University of Pennsylvania publicity bureau YMCA publicity bureau Standard Oil hires publicist Marine Corps publicity bureau Ford employee newsletter American Red Cross publicity program Creel Committee on Public Information National Lutheran Council press office Knights of Columbus press office Much of the communication research was related to the war-time interest in propaganda, brainwashing and social manipulation.
In the post-war era, many researchers and practitioners continued to explore their interests in persuasive communication. Following are some of the highlights associated with this era: Walter Lippman wrote Public Opinion Bernays taught the first college class in public relations New York University Edward Bernays wrote Crystallizing Public Opinion Rex Harlow became the first full-time college professor of public relations Stanford University Social reform continued to be a key impetus for public relations activity, and many techniques were successfully employed on behalf of issues such as child labor, workers' comp, prostitution, regulation of big business, food safety and other early consumer issues.
Government also was using public relations techniques. This committee was active during the First World War. The Voice of America radio system was established. Meanwhile, the era saw the development of many public relations agencies and departments.
Among the better known historical figures are agency founders Edward Bernays, Carl Byoir, Leona Baxter and Clem Whitaker political public relationsand Henry Rogers entertainment public relations.
The advocacy model continues to be used in many situations. Most public relations agencies provide advocacy services for their clients, particularly those with products or services in competitive environments.Evaluate how far Grunig & Hunt’s four models of public relations remain relevant to contemporary practice.
Grunig and Hunt’s four models of public relations have stood as the most notable and most cited theoretical models of public relations (PR) for over thirty years (Black ).
They have. Grunig and Hunt in their book “Managing Public Relations” state that the models “help us to understand the diversity of public relations practice today (Grunig, Hunt, ) The four models based on the common characteristic and behaviour of past public relations practitioners and organizations.
Contingency Theory of Strategic Conflict Management Much of the literature on effective public relations had been built on Grunig and Grunig’s () and Grunig and Hunt’s () excellence theory. Four models of excellence have been Mitrook () argued there were several reasons why the four models of public relations were.
J. Grunig (J.
Grunig & Hunt, ) proposed four models of public relations. These models are press agentry, public information, two -way asymmetrical and two - way symmetrical. Four models of public relations Why do companies need public relations?
Public relations versus marketing versus advertising General roles in public relations References VIII. Chapter 8: Media Relations The four models in Grunig’s and Hunt’s PR theories. Unifies social science research and management theory with public relations techniques to provide a solid theoretical foundation.
Covers the management as well as the techniques of public relations, emphasising decision-making and evaluation.5/5(1).