The protest songs of the period differed from those of earlier leftist movements, which had been more oriented towards labor activism and adopting instead a broader definition of political activism commonly called social activismwhich incorporated notions of equal rights and of promoting the concept of "peace". The music often included relatively simple instrumental accompaniment, including acoustic guitar and harmonica. Many Americans still remember Odetta 's performance at the civil rights movement's March on Washington where she sang Oh Freedom. While Dylan is often thought of as a 'protest singer', most of his protest songs spring from a relatively short time-period in his career; Mike Marqusee writes:
While Americans were girding to fight the Civil War inthe French were beginning a century-long imperial involvement in Indochina. The lands now known as Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia comprised Indochina. The riches to be harvested in these lands proved economically enticing to the French. Ho was educated in the West, where he became a disciple of Marxist thought.
Ho resented and resisted the French. Ho formed a liberation movement known as the Viet Minh. Using guerrilla warfare, the Viet Minh battled the Japanese and held many key cities by Paraphrasing the Declaration of Independence, Ho proclaimed the new nation of Vietnam — a new nation Western powers refused to recognize.
France was determined to reclaim all its territories after World War II. The United States now faced an interesting dilemma. American tradition dictated sympathy for the revolutionaries over any colonial power. However, supporting the Marxist Viet Minh was unthinkable, given the new strategy of containing communism.
Domino Theory American diplomats subscribed to the domino theory. A communist victory in Vietnam might lead to communist victories in Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Such a scenario was unthinkable to the makers of American foreign policy.
President Truman decided to support France in its efforts to reclaim Indochina by providing money and military advisers. The French found Ho Chi Minh a formidable adversary. Between and a fierce war developed between the two sides. Slowly but surely, the Viet Minh wore down the French will to fight.
Negotiations to end the conflict took place in Geneva. A multinational agreement divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel. The territory north of this line would be led by Ho Chi Minh with Hanoi its capital. The southern sector named Saigon its capital and Ngo Dinh Diem its leader. This division was meant to be temporary, with nationwide elections scheduled for Knowing that Ho Chi Minh would be a sure victor, the South made sure these elections were never held.
During the administrations of Eisenhower and Kennedy, the United States continued to supply funds, weapons, and military advisers to South Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh turned North Vietnam into a communist dictatorship and created a new band of guerrillas in the South called the Viet Cong, whose sole purpose was to overthrow the military regime in the South and reunite the nation under Ho Chi Minh.
Diem was corrupt, showed little commitment to democratic principles, and favored Catholics to the dismay of the Buddhist majority. He had successfully won the hearts and minds of the majority of the Vietnamese people.
By the time Lyndon Johnson inherited the Presidency, Vietnam was a bitterly divided nation.The United States provided financial support to France's fight against Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh from the s until direct U.S.
involvement. While Americans were girding to fight the Civil War in , the French were beginning a century-long imperial involvement in . The United States provided financial support to France's fight against Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh from the s until direct U.S.
involvement. While Americans were girding to fight the Civil War in , the French were beginning a century-long imperial involvement in Indochina. As the narrative of the 20th century is interpreted, historians are regarding the Vietnam War in a global context that spans decades and concludes with the fall of the Soviet Union.
No matter their differences of perspective, they will define the Vietnam War as the Cold War in Indochina.
The Middle East: United States Policy and Relations in the Latter Half of the 20th Century Bobby Beaver, Jeffrey Beaver, Matthew Wilsey This variety is largely responsible for the incessant turmoil and volatility which has characterized the Middle East in the 20th century.
After the Vietnam War. Cuba gained its independence from Spain in , and the United States was closely involved in Cuban politics through all of the early 20th century.
The U.S. kept military bases on the island and also supported the dictatorship of General Fulgencio Batista. The 20th century saw the emergence of "total wars," such as World War I and World War II, which were large enough to encompass nearly the entire world.
Other wars, like the Chinese Civil War, remained local but still caused the deaths of millions of people.