References and Further Reading 1. Ancient Ethics and Modern Morality There are at least two main criteria that each moral theory must fulfil: However, many traditional moral theories are unable to meet the second criterion and simply fall short of the high demands of applied ethics to solve the complex moral problems of our times. Why is this the case?
Psychoanalyse first started to receive serious attention under Sigmund Freud, who formulated his own theory of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the s.
Freud was a neurologist trying to find an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms. He then wrote a monograph about this subject. Charcot had introduced hypnotism as an experimental research tool and developed the photographic representation of clinical symptoms.
Breuer wrote that many factors that could result in such symptoms, including various types of emotional trauma, and he also credited work by others such as Pierre Janet ; while Freud contended that at the root of hysterical symptoms were repressed memories of distressing occurrences, almost always having direct or indirect sexual associations.
It remained unpublished in his lifetime. This became the received historical account until challenged by several Freud scholars in the latter part of the 20th century who argued that he had imposed his preconceived notions on his patients.
Freud formulated his second psychological theory— which hypothesises that the unconscious has or is a "primary process" consisting of symbolic and condensed thoughts, and a "secondary process" of logical, conscious thoughts.
This theory was published in his book, The Interpretation of Dreams. This "topographic theory" is still popular in much of Europe, although it has fallen out of favour in much of North America. Freud and Jung in the center InFreud published Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality  in which he laid out his discovery of so-called psychosexual phases: His early formulation included the idea that because of societal restrictions, sexual wishes were repressed into an unconscious state, and that the energy of these unconscious wishes could be turned into anxiety or physical symptoms.
Therefore, the early treatment techniques, including hypnotism and abreaction, were designed to make the unconscious conscious in order to relieve the pressure and the apparently resulting symptoms. This method would later on be left aside by Freud, giving free association a bigger role.
In On Narcissism  Freud turned his attention to the subject of narcissism.
Still using an energic system, Freud characterized the difference between energy directed at the self versus energy directed at others, called cathexis. Byin "Mourning and Melancholia", he suggested that certain depressions were caused by turning guilt-ridden anger on the self.
ByFreud addressed the power of identification with the leader and with other members in groups as a motivation for behavior Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego.
Also, it was the first appearance of his "structural theory" consisting three new concepts id, ego, and superego. Hence, Freud characterised repression as both a cause and a result of anxiety. Inin Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety, Freud characterised how intrapsychic conflict among drive and superego wishes and guilt caused anxietyand how that anxiety could lead to an inhibition of mental functions, such as intellect and speech.
According to Freud, the Oedipus complex, was at the centre of neurosis, and was the foundational source of all art, myth, religion, philosophy, therapy—indeed of all human culture and civilization.
It was the first time that anyone in the inner circle had characterised something other than the Oedipus complex as contributing to intrapsychic development, a notion that was rejected by Freud and his followers at the time.
Within a year, Sigmund Freud died.
Led by Heinz HartmannKris, Rappaport and Lowenstein, the group built upon understandings of the synthetic function of the ego as a mediator in psychic functioning[ jargon ].Gary Gutting is a Notre Dame philosophy professor who thinks that what counts about arguments is whether they “work.” And so his complaint against natural-law arguments for Catholic teachings about sex is that they “no longer work (if they ever did)”.
These conditions provide the socioeconomic and cultural basis for postmodern theory and their analysis provides the perspectives from which postmodern theory can claim to be on the cutting edge of contemporary developments.
Ethics are important because our choices for RS Contemporary Ethical Issues This course emphasizes the development of skills in critical thinking through analysis of such contemporary ethical issues as abortion, euthanasia, genetic engineering, sexual behavior, racism, gender bias, punishment, RS is an upper division G.E.
This course is an introduction to gender and sexuality studies from a sociological perspective. Its primary focus is critical perspectives on the social construction of gender and sexuality, inequalities on the basis of gender and sexuality, activism around issues of gender and sexuality, and how gender and sexuality shape and are shaped by other .
Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. Nov 18, · Love and Unity: Sexual Ethics in the Modern World November 18, July 26, By Christopher Kaczor One Body, by Alexander Pruss, melds rigorous philosophical analysis and insightful moral theology to advance a clearly-articulated system of sexual ethics based on the call to love.